Unexpected Golang behaviors

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One should always pay special attention about the lifecycle of the data structures when they’re shared between different entities, i.e., they’re pointers. Usually when the referenced value can change, some explicit concurrency mechanisms are offered, or the lifecycle is clearly documented. In the case of the Writer interface provided by the standard io package, the latter is applied, and the documentation clearly states that implementations must not retain p., however due to the simplicity of the function one may overlook the documentation and suffer from that.

This section explains how retaining the []byte slice provided to Write([]byte) (int, error) can bite you.


Imagine yourself writing a dummy buffered writer implementation, because you don’t want your program to be slowed down by your logging system, one of the simpliest approaches would look like this:

package main

import (

type bufWriter struct {
	output io.Writer
	buffer chan []byte

func (bw bufWriter) Start() {
	go func() {
		for b := range bw.buffer {

func (bw bufWriter) Write(b []byte) (int, error) {
	bw.buffer <- b
	return len(b), nil

func main() {
	writer := bufWriter{os.Stdout, make(chan []byte, 10)}

	for i := 0; i < 10; i++ {
		fmt.Fprintf(writer, "%d\n", i)


One would expect this code to print numbers from 0 to 9, however, the output will be most likely a bunch of nines.


The cause of this, apart obviously of our violation of the contract of Write method are some optimizations performed by fmt package. fmt.Fprintf calls fmt.newPrinter() function which doesn’t actually always create a new pp, but uses a sync.Pool of them instead.

// newPrinter allocates a new pp struct or grabs a cached one.
func newPrinter() *pp {
	p := ppFree.Get().(*pp)
	p.panicking = false
	p.erroring = false
	p.wrapErrs = false
	return p

It uses a buffer to build the formatted string, then passes that buffer to our Write() implementation and then calls pp.free() which resets some values on the printer and puts it back to the pool so it can be reused for the next formatting.

When we call fmt.Fprintf again, same printer is being reused, and the buffer, although it’s []byte slice is not 0, still points to the same underlying array, so we end up writing on the same data. And here’s where the issue comes: we still didn’t read that slice, and it’s being overwritten already, so when we read it, it’s already the latest value that have been formatted.


Well, as we already mentioned we should just follow the documentation and avoid retaining the []byte slice we’ve been given. Instead of that, we should copy it’s contents before returning from the Write() function, like this:

func (bw bufWriter) Write(b []byte) (int, error) {
	cp := make([]byte, len(b))
	for i := range b {
		cp[i] = b[i]
	bw.buffer <- cp
	return len(cp), nil


Since allocating a new slice each time may be expensive (remember, never assume, measure first), you may want to use a sync.Pool combined with a bytes.Buffer.